BLA History, page 2
THE END OF RECONSTRUCTION (or "The War after the Civil War") AND SEGREGATION BY LAW, a virtual revolution.
Immediately after the Civil War the whites of the Confederacy began a vengeful campaign of murder againts the New Afrikans. So vicious was this year-long aggression that Congress in 1867 divided the Confederacy into five military districts.
1875, Sept. 1 - Riot in Yazoo City, Miss.; 20 Blacks killed.
Sept. 4 - Riot in Clinton, Miss.; 80 Blacks and republicans killed.
For 20 years thereafter, in state after state, ex-Confederates and their progeny mounted this armed revolution and captured for themselves the government of every former Confederate state. The U.S. Army, a reluctant and inconsistent protector of New Afrikans in this latter period, was withdrawn in 1877.
1877 - Louisiana was the last Southern white government to return to power.
The Louisiana-based movement of Henry Adams--Exodusters--appealed fruitlessly to the U.S. for "land anywhere."
About 100 lynchings occurred every year in the 1880's and 1890's.
1883 - The Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional, Southern states began to enact laws to segrate races.
1884, Aug. 9 - Death of Robert Brown Elliot.
* 1884, Nov. 15 - "Scramble for Afrika" organized at an international conference in Berlin.
1886, Carrollton, Miss. massacre of over twenty Blacks.
1887, Aug. 17 - Birth of Marcus Garvey.
1889 - The prominent New Afrikan journalist John E. Bruce and his prophecy about New Afrikan's organized resistance and "resort to force under wise and discreet leaders." (Schleifer, in Williams, p. 128).
1889, Apr. 15 - Birth of Asa Philip Randolph, trade union and civil rights leader, in Crescent City, Fla.
Edward McCabe sought to make Oklahoma a New Afrikan state, with himself as governor.
1892 - There were 161 lynchings.
1895, Feb. 20 - Frederick Douglass died.
1895, Mar. 11 - White mob attacks Black workers in New Orleans, LA.
1898 - Spanish-American War.
1898, Apr. 9 - Birth of Paul Robeson.
1900 - Anti-Black riot in New York
1900, July 24 - Riot in New Orleans which killed several Blacks and over 30 homes and schools burned.
1904 - Anti-Black riot in Springfield, Ohio.
1905, July 11 - Niagara Movement organized by W.E.B. DuBois and William Monroe Trotter.
1906 - Anti-Black riot in Greensburg, Ind.
1906, Aug. 13 - Black soldiers raid Brownsville, Tex., in retaliation for insults.
1908 - Anti-Black riot in Springfield, Ill. A three-day riot, initiated by a white women's claim of violation by a Black man. By the time National Guardsmen reached the scene, six persons were dead--four whites and two Blacks; property damage was extensive. Many New Afrikans left Springfield, hoping to find better conditions elsewhere, especially in Chicago.
1908, July 2 - Thurgood Marshall born.
1909, Sept. 20 - Birth of Kwame Nkrumah.
1913, Mar. 10 - Death of Harriet Tubman, Auburn, NY.
WORLD WAR I: 1914-18: More than two million New Afrikans registered under the Selective Service Act, and some 360,000 were called into service. (1968 Riot Commission, p. 218).
1916 ? - African Blood Brotherhood organized.
1917 - Major riots by whites against Blacks took place in Chester, Penn., and Philadelphia.
Between July 1917 and March 1921, 58 Black houses in Chicago were bombed, and recreational areas were sites of racial conflict. (1968 Riot Commission, p. 219).
1917, July 1 - Riot in East St. Louis, Ill., kills approximately 200 Blacks (other reports say 39), and nine whites, as a result of fear by white working men that Black advances in economic, political and social status were threatening their own security and status. Hundreds injured, and more than 300 buildings destroyed.
1917, Aug. 23 - Whites and Black soldiers of the 24th Infantry Regiment battle in Houston, Tex.; 2 Blacks and 17 whites killed; 13 Blacks later hanged.
* 1919, Feb. 19 - First Pan-Afrikan Congress meets in Paris, France.
1919, June to the end of the year - About 25 Major riots by whites against Blacks took place, including Washington, DC, Omaha, Neb., Charleston, Elaine, Ark., and Knoxville, Tenn.
July - Longview, Tex., witnessed the nightmare of a race riot.
July 27 (started Sunday and lasted a week)- "Red Summer" riot in Chicago flared from the increase in Black population, which had more than doubled in 10 years. Jobs were plentiful, but housing was not. Black neighborhoods expanded into white sections of the city, and trouble developed. It left 15 whites and 23 Blacks dead, at least 537 injured, 178 were white and 342 were black, there is no record of the racial identity of the remaining 17. (see 1968 Riot Commission, p. 219; Franklin and Moss, p. 315).
THE 1920'S AND THE NEW MILITANCY
1921, June 1 - A major riot by whites against a Black area in Tulsa, Okla., called the Black Wall Street, leaves 21 whites and 60 Blacks dead.
1925, May 19 - El Hajj Malik El Shabazz (Malcolm X) born.
* 1925, July 2 - Patrice Lumumba born.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, founder in 1914 of the UNIA, aimed to liberate both Afrikans and New Afrikans from their oppressors.
THE DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL
Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam (NOI) began appeals in the 1930's for a separate territory, initially to be provisioned by the U.S. for 30 years.
1931, Apr. 6 - First of Scottsboro Trials begin, Scottsboro, Ala.
WORLD WAR II
1939-45 - "The treatment accorded the Negro during the Second World War marks, for me, a turning point in the Negro's relation to America. To put it briefly, and somewhat too simply, a certain hope died, a certain respect for white Americans faded." (Baldwin, p. 68).
* 1940, June 10 - Death of Marcus Garvey, London, England.
1941, Sept. 23 - George Jackson born.
** 1942-45 - Rebellions on U.S. bases worldwide by New Afrikans. [see Port Chicago Explosion and Mutiny website below].
1943 - Racial disorders had broken out sporadically in Mobile, Los Angeles, Beaumont, Tex., and elsewhere. In Harlem, NY, a riot erupted. Six persons died, over 500 were injured, more than 100 were jailed. (1968 Riot Commission, p. 224).
1943, June 20 (Sunday) - The Detroit Riot. By the time federal troops arrived to halt the racial conflict, 25 Blacks and 9 whites were dead, property damage exceeded $2 million, and a legacy of fear and hate became part of the city. (1968 Riot Commission, p. 224).
* 1945, Apr. - Two unarmed U.S. Black soldiers killed by military police at French army camp for allegedly talking to French women employed there.
THE POSTWAR PERIOD
1947, Apr. 9 - CORE sends first group of Freedom Riders through
1947, Sept. 13 - Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt born.
* 1949, Oct. 1 - Victory of Chinese Revolution.
1950-53 - Korean Conflict.
1950, Apr. 3 - Death of Carter G. Woodson, historian, in Washington, DC.
"...white Americans congratulate themselves on the 1954 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation in the schools; they suppose, in spite of the mountain of evidence that has since accumulated to the contrary, that this was proof of a change of heart--or, as they like to say, progress. Perhaps. It all depends on how one reads the word "progress." Most Negroes I know do not believe that this immense concession would ever have been made if it had not been for the competition of the Cold War, and the fact that Africa was clearly liberating herself and therefore had, for political reasons, to be wooed by the descendants of her former masters." (Baldwin, pp. 100-101).
1955, Aug. 28 - Emmett Till, 14, kidnapped and lynched in Money, Miss.
1955, Dec. 5 - Beginning of Montgomery, Ala., Bus Boycott.
Afoh, Kwame; Lumumba, Chokwe; Obadele, Imari; and Obafemi, Ahmed. A Brief History of Black Struggle In America. The Malcolm Generation, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA, c. 1997.
Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. The Dial Press, New York, c. 1963.
Franklin, John Hope, and Moss, Alfred A., Jr. From Slavery To Freedom,, 6th edition. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, NY, c. 1988.
New Afrikan Prison Organization 1978 Calendar.
New Afrikan Prison Organization 1979 Calendar.
Notes from a New Afrikan P.O.W. Journal, Books One thru Seven (Combined), Spear and Sheild Publications, Chicago, IL, c. 1986.
Painter, Nell. The Exodusters.
U.S. Riot Commission Report. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Bantam Books, New York, c. 1968.
REVISED: January 19, 2003, by Nat Turner Collective, BLA.